Chapter 5:

Rehosting Education in the Electronic Media

"... To be educated is to remain teachable. To be learned is to continue to learn. It is not an issue of filling up the mind with facts, figures, and formulae; it is the process of searching, analyzing, and synthesizing information to generate knowledge. But that is not the end of it. Knowledge must be used wisely. The ultimate goal of education is not the degree; it is the trajectory of the mind through space. The target is the good of mankind."

As the Provost concluded his remarks at the faculty convocation, Dr. Jenkins, the newly hired assistant professor in the College of Education, began to think about how such lofty ideas could actually take place in higher education. To be sure there was already an emphasis on critical thinking, writing, and collaborative exercises. The course catalog was filled with classes on literary analysis, revisionist this and constructivist that. Students learned to read, research, and write. But was all of this sufficient to send them zooming into the 21st century? No! The university had prided itself on outpacing the world in the generation of ideas and change. But now the world was speeding past the ivy covered walls while the faculty were entrenched behind wooden lecterns backed up by blackboards and chalk.

What is the new trajectory that must be calculated and what are the tools needed by the learner to continue to learn in the 21st century? All of a sudden an idea struck him. We know to a certain extent that one has to learn to learn in a number of disciplines whether it is history or philosophy, literature or chemistry. Each discipline has its media and method. One develops the facilities of the mind using the tools of the trade. Let's change the tools to challenge the mind. Quickly Dr. Jenkins typed an outline and description of a new course that he would propose to teach in the State Scholars Program. It would be titled: "Switched on minds: Analysis of the electronic information space." He smiled as he typed the following course requirement: "Students may not use any printed material nor may they use pencils, pens, or notebooks. All materials must be electronic. All reports and projects must be electronic. And all interactions must be electronic." "OK," he thought to himself. He had gone to far. He cherished the meeting together with his students too much to give up that aspect of education. "Some interactions would be electronic."

In the previous chapters we considered many of the elements necessary to the electronic classroom. In this chapter we will look at overall design considerations for generating an electronic educational environment. How will it be possible to learn to learn when all of the materials are electronic? What environment is necessary to support learning with no printed materials. Building the system to rehost education in the switched on classroom is not unlike the development of many other complex systems. The difference is that in many ways the educational environment may prove in the long run to be more extensive and never complete. Indeed, the software infrastructure for the electronic classroom and beyond could very well be the biggest and longest lasting project ever undertaken in the brief history of computer systems.

For this reason it is essential that much care and thought be devoted to its development from an integrated systems view and from the view of the users: students, instructors, and administrators. As a starting point in this chapter, we will first attempt to define education in a broad perspective in terms of information flow. Then we will explore the models, metaphors, and scripts that help to organize the educational process in the traditional classroom and that can be used in the design of the electronic media as a common frame of reference. Next we will look at the tools of education needed by students and instructors to support learning activities. Finally, we will consider the principles of interface design that are particularly germane to educational environments.

5.1 The Educational Process

We will first consider the educational environment as an abstract information space. At its most trivialized level, education can be viewed as the flow of information from one generation, however construed, to the next. Although education is a much richer event embodying not only the hopes and purposes of humanity but our very destiny as well, the technological schematic need only consider the flow of information from one point to another. To this schematic we add the content to the information and the interaction of human agents about this information.

The switched on classroom and the underlying educational environment supporting it is a multifaceted electronic space involving complex interactions among two sets of agents (instructors and students) and two sets of objects (course materials and course products). The interactions among these sets form a complex network of relationships. Figure 5.1 gives a schematic diagram of some of these sets and some of the interactions that may occur. On the left side of the figure, the double arrows indicate that instructors interact among themselves. In the hardcopy classroom, this is by way of formal printed media such as books and journals and by way of informal methods such as conversation and the exchange of notes and ideas. On the right side of the figure, the double arrows indicate that students also interact among themselves. In the traditional classroom, student interaction is generally limited to informal methods of communication such as in-class discussion and out-of-class study groups.

Figure 5.1. A schematic of the sets of agents and objects in the instructional process (from Norman, 1990).

The instructional process basically involves interaction across sets of agents. Instructors convey information to the students and students convey information back often in the form of questions, answers, and reports. In general, however, interactions are conveyed by means of the two sets of objects, the course materials and the course products. Course materials are previously existing texts, lesson plans, and compendia of materials such as references, collections, and databases. Course products are the result of educational activities and include such things as test results, class dialogue, original works produced by the students, and evaluative feedback. In general, the source of the information is from the set of course materials; it is conveyed by means of the instructor to the students or by students directly interacting with the information; and finally, results in the observable products of education which hopefully are diagnositc of lasting changes in the students themselves.

Switching to the electronic media, the course materials and course products will be contained in hypermedia databases and interaction with these databases will be by way of the human/computer interface. The interface is represented in Figure 5.1 as the intersection of areas covered by the domains. These are the six intersecting areas. The Instructor-Material Area A pertains to the instructor's access to course material outside of their direct interaction with students. Course preparation would be a major activity in this area. Similarly, the Student-Material Area B pertains to student access to course material outside of direct interaction with the instructors. This would include the activities of independent reading and studying. The Instructor-Material-Student Area C is a three-way interface of the instructors and the students together interacting with the course material. This area basically represents the activities of delivering lectures and classroom interaction with course material. The Student-Product Area D pertains to student authoring of papers, completion of assignments, and taking of exams. Since students may also be grouped, this area may also contain collaborative work. The Instructor-Product Area E pertains to instructor access to course products for evaluation and grading. Finally, and central to collaboration and mentoring, the Instructor-Products-Students Area F is a three-way interface of instructors and students with the products. Instructors and students may work together on collaborative class projects.

With this as a schematic one may then translate each space to a file server or device storing the course materials and course products. Each interaction among agents can be translated to some tool for transmitting information such as email, Listservs, file transfer protocol (ftp), multi-party chat channels, or "browsers" on the World Wide Web. The question then is how to design the educational space so that it is integrated, understandable, and usable by students, instructors, and administrators. The abstract information space must be instantiated, given substance, and made meaningful.

5.2 Models, Metaphors, and Scripts

One way to generate the design of a new human/computer interface is to start from the current, manual system; take the useful, meaningful forms as models, metaphors, and scripts; and instantiate these in the look and feel of a graphical user interface. Rather than creating a totally new electronic educational environment, it is suggested that the conventional objects of classroom instruction should be implemented in electronic form in the electronic classroom (Norman, 1990). The question then is, "What is the current implementation of the traditional classroom in terms of material, tools, and interactions?" In order to answer this question from the student's perspective, a study was conducted. Undergraduate students were asked (a) to write scripts of a typical class listing the sequence of events that normally occur during the session, (b) to list the materials and tools used in education, and (c) to list the types of interaction that normally occur in the classroom between different people.

The events in the scripts were divided into pre-class, during class, and post-class periods. Interestingly, 46% of the events listed were pre-class, while only 37% were during class. The events in each time period were indexed by their relative order in the scripts. During the pre-class period the events were roughly in order: find the class, enter the room, choose a seat, move around, sit down, scan the room, socialize, prepare for the class, unpack or get out materials, and wait for the class to begin. During the class the events were: deal with course administration, listen to the lecture, learn the material, ask or answer questions, participate in class discussion, pay attention, deal with distractions, take notes, and end the class. After the class the events were: deal with course administration, pack up materials, move out, participate in social interaction, and leave.

The scripts generated by the students suggest that a lot of activity occurs before and after the class in the minds of the students. They are conscious of all of the activities of getting ready for class to start and of cleaning up after the class is over. If one maps these events to the electronic environment, they are like logging on to an account, finding and opening files and applications, and arranging one's computer desktop to start working. At the end of class the activities are analogous to closing files, cleaning up, and signing off. The implication is that software to support learning activities in electronic classroom should try to facilitate these set up and break down activities rather than adding additional overhead for the students to contend with. The number of steps in terms of commands, menu selections, and clicks needs to be minimized. The startup activities for the student need to be as automatic as possible to prepare their system and workspace for classroom activities to begin. In addition, the software should help to facilitate the classroom administrative activities. The system should take care of the mundane activities such as providing a list of class announcements, taking automatic attendance, passing out notes, and collecting assignments. Finally, the temporal sequence of classroom activities from beginning to end should be represented in the software. This may be in the form of a linear menu, a time line, or an outline of something like a lesson plan. This type of representation will help both the student the instructor to better manage classroom time and the sequence of events.

Although the instructions emphasized a distinction between materials and tools and even provided an example in the domain of cooking (e.g., ingredients versus utensils), the students were not able to keep the distinction clear in the domain of education. While some things are clearly tools, such as pens and pencils, others, such as books, could be both tools and materials. Consequently, the distinction was dropped. The items that the students listed in order of highest to lowest frequency were: writing tools, books, cognitive abilities (e.g., one's intelligence), professors, paper, notes/notebooks, computers, audio/visual equipment, blackboards, library resources, calculators, furniture, art tools, knowledge, bookbags, exams, classrooms, assignments, students, time, and so on. The items listed by the students were interesting in that many students referred to themselves, their knowledge and/or abilities, as educational resources along side the resources of instructors and traditional materials, such as books and libraries. Electronic educational environments need to take this into account by explicitly including students in the educational knowledge base. This may be done by referring either to student input (e.g., formal papers and assignments), to student interactions (e.g., participation in class discussion, small group interactions, etc.) and to student resources (e.g., personal expertise, personal experience, personal collections, etc.).

Finally, when the students were asked to list the types of interactions that occurred in the classroom they tended to cover the full set of possible interactions. Surprisingly, the most frequent type of interaction was student to student (28%) while the second most frequent was teacher to student (25%) and the third student to teacher (15%). In addition to these, the students listed: everyone interacting with each other, students interacting with the material, students interacting with self (e.g., thinking), and students presenting information to the class as a whole.

The frequency of student-to-student interactions suggests that the electronic classroom should support tools for student dialogue and messaging between students. The results might also suggest that student-to-student interaction needs to be channeled to support learning and classroom activities rather than being distracting or wasting time. In addition, the software should support interaction between the students and the instructor by providing an easy to use email system, feedback tool, and question asking system.

The electronic classroom should use many of metaphors, elements, labels, objects, and tools of the traditional classroom as a start. The new electronic environment, however, will employ materials and tools that go far beyond those of the traditional classroom by embodying many new and powerful capabilities of computers discussed in Chapter 3. The next section will explore some of these.

5.3 Hypermedia

One of the most important elements of the new electronic educational environment will be hypermedia. In the present case, we will consider hypermedia to be a collection of electronic documents represented as objects with links tying them together in a network. The primary advance of "hyper" part of hypermedia over other databases is the inherent facility to go from one object to another in a meaningful path and to effectively browse through the material following any number of interesting routes. The "media" part of hypermedia implies that the database includes not just text but also images, video, audio, and even interactive simulations. Many different software applications run hypermedia systems. The two major types are stackware applications such as HyperCardª, SuperCardª, ObjectPlusª, and ToolBookª and World Wide Web servers and associated browsers.. Figure 5.2 shows a general network of the types of documents that may constitute a hypermedia database.

Figure 5.2. Objects and links in a hypermedia database( from Norman, 1990).

In the switched-on classroom the sets of course materials and course products represented in Figure 5.1 need to be mapped to objects in the hypermedia database. In doing so, one needs to make use of the metaphors and analogies suggested in the previous section. Objects such as textbooks, the syllabus, assignments, exams, etc. should be to represented as nodes in the hypermedia database so that browsing and navigation through the information follows a similar course that one would expect in the traditional classroom. Figure 5.3 shows an early conceptualization of a hypermedia database that might be used by both the instructor and the students in an electronic classroom.

Figure 5.3. A hypermedia database for the electronic educational environment (from Norman, 1990).

Traditionally, one would begin with the syllabus from either the date of the class or from the topic to be covered. Students might jump to their own class notes or to the instructor's lecture notes for the day. Alternatively, one may jump to nodes representing the textbook, the list of readings, the assignments, or the exams. Lecture notes may be enhanced by linking them to annotations on an electronic blackboard, to video segments, or to demonstrations produced by a simulation program. A number of these links will be specified by the instructor; some will be established as traces in the normal course accessing information for presentation; and others will be generated by the students as they form new associations and generate new information.

The power of hypermedia is that it will contain not only the wealth of instructional information but also the links that tie it all together into a meaningful structure. However, the design of the hypermedia database and the tools used to access it are critical to its success in a learning environment. Consequently, the remainder of this chapter is devoted to these issues.

5.4 New Tools of Electronic Education

The design of a hypermedia system must take into consideration the specific task and purpose of the user as student or instructor. In educational contexts these activities and tasks are highly varied. It is not enough to design a system that merely allows for exploratory browsing as was the intent of many early systems. The student may not be interested in meandering about but rather in quickly finding information relevant to a project or sure to be on the exam. Browsing becomes replaced by studying when a grade is involved and exploration becomes directed when course objectives are involved. Furthermore, the student is often not merely a consumer of knowledge but also a generator who may need to author and disseminate information in the hypermedia database. In this section, some of these distinctions and issues are made and tools are suggested that may aid in the process of education. These tools have been referred to elsewhere as "hypertools" for hypertext (Norman & Wright, 1993).

* Browsing/Searching/Studying: Curiosity is an important component of education. Early approaches to the use of hypermedia systems in education capitalized on browsing and exploration. However, when the educational objectives include retrieval and memorization of specific facts, browsing is replaced by searching and studying. Husic (1989) coined the phrase "goal directed browsing" to suggest an activity having more direction than free browsing. While tools for browsing are relatively simple and robust, tools for searching and serious study of the material are more complex and require greater sophistication on the part of the user. Hypermedia systems for education will require tools for a string search, Boolean search, and sophisticated methods of indexing materials (e.g., Dumais, 1988).

Hypermedia systems in the spirit of unfettered exploration have ignored basic learning paradigms such as programmed instruction and drill-and-test. Nevertheless, these techniques can be easily incorporated as tools in hypermedia systems when they serve the educational objectives of the course. Simple tools that track and repeat traversal, run scripts, test for recall, and evaluate performance can be embedded in the hypermedia system as well as more powerful tools such as intelligent tutors (e.g., Dede, 1986).

* Gathering/Scattering: In educational contexts, it is not enough to traverse the hypermedia space. The serious student must gather information along the way. Tools are needed to help the student gather and use things as they work their way through the hypermedia database. Norman & Wright (1993) note that such tools may be designed as either "pickers" or "pointers." Pickers copy the information into the user's storage area; whereas, pointers merely record the location of found information. Clipboards and scrapbooks are pickers, while book marks and path tracers are pointers. Pickers are preferred over pointers when access to the system is limited and students cannot easily return to the information or when the user wishes to alter the file or repurpose the material. Pointers are preferred over pickers when access is not a problem and multiple copies of files become too much of a storage problem or when the information is frequently updated and the user wishes to access only the current version. Issues of intellectual property rights may also be a consideration between pickers and pointers.

The inverse of gathering is scattering or more properly planting. Students as well as instructors often need to deposit or disseminate information throughout the hypermedia database (Rada et al., 1989). The contents of the database might be annotated or marked by students and instructors; notes might be left by the instructor to individual students at various nodes in the database or notes from one student to another might be deposited; and finally, information may be added to the database in the form of new examples, citations, or hypermedia links. Tools for adding different types of information to hypermedia systems are needed. Such tools may require the user to traverse to the point at which the information is to be deposited or automatically disseminate it to marked nodes. The exponential growth of informatin on the World Wide Web is testimony to the desire of users to dissmenate information.

* Planning/Playing: When a set of educational objectives must be met, the instructor using a hypermedia database may need to plan the course through the hypermedia space carefully and check off the objectives as they are met. For example, in the course of a lecture the instructor may wish to present three different styles of painting and provide three examples of each. A planning tool that allows the instructor to list the objectives, check off completion of the objectives, and record pointers to the locations would help in the completion of complex educational tasks. Once the plan has been completed, it can be used to play back the events and locations recorded in the database. The recording of locations can be used by the instructor to present a lecture or it can be used by the students as the completion of an assignment or for a presentation.

Students could benefit greatly from planning tools when they need to complete assignments or set goals for studying. In the complete electronic educational environment it could be easy to lose track of things. Particularly when studying for an exam, it will be necessary to mark information relevant to the exam and plan a course of attack by scheduling items to be studied. A planning tool would allow students to either check off a scheduled set of assignments involving access to the hypermedia database or to generate and list a set of completed assignments.

Many other tools to assist in the navigation and use of hypermedia databases may be needed. Particularly in education, tools are needed not only to find information but also to aid in the analysis, generation, and presentation of information. Additional tools will be illustrated in the following section.

5.5 Interface Design

The software infrastructure for the switched on classroom must be based on optimal design principles developed in hypermedia applications (McAleese, 1989; Wright, 1989) and on the general principles of good interface design (Norman, 1991; Shneiderman, 1992). It is not sufficient to design a system that merely works or that has the required functionality for the task. It is not acceptable to place the burden of responsibility on the user to learn how to use a complex system. The interface must be easy to use, work in expected ways, and be consistent throughout. Specifically, the design challenge is to create an electronic educational environment that:

1. is easy to learn, easy to use, and operates in an obvious way.

2. is integrated, appears seamless, and requires a minimum number of steps to perform any desired function.

3. reduces the cognitive load of students and instructors rather than increases it.

4. reduces the difficulty of instructors generating and using material to bring to the course and of students copying and using materials to take from the course.

5. promotes active interaction with course materials and collaboration among the students and the instructor.

A number of principles can be gleaned from the human/computer interaction literature to guide the design of hypermedia systems. This section highlights principles that specifically support navigation and in turn support educational processes and objectives. As one evaluates a system or is working to design such a system, the following guidelines should be considered:

* Make use of spatial metaphors: Navigation is by nature most comprehensible in a spatial representation. Consequently, it makes sense to capitalize on the benefits of a spatial metaphor in navigating hypermedia. A number of studies have supported the idea that both search performance and learning are facilitated by providing spatial metaphors of the database at the interface (e.g., Butler, 1990; Webb & Kramer, 1988).

Spatial metaphors are easily instantiated in hypermedia. Graphical user interfaces can be used to convey the metaphor (a) by spatial layout of objects on the screen, (b) by screen transitions that wipe or zoom, and (c) by maps and diagrams. However, designers need to be cautious. Inconsistent and inappropriate use of spatial metaphors may confuse users. Over reliance on spatial metaphors may frustrate users with low spatial visualization abilities.

In the context of education, the spatial metaphors might relate to either the navigation through the curriculum, facilities, or types of educational material or the subject matter itself. For example, the curriculum which involves course catalogs, degree requirements, and educational objectives may be represented via flowcharts and other diagrams. The educational facilities which include libraries, mailboxes, copy rooms, etc. may be represented as floor plans of school buildings or map of a campus. Finally, the types of materials such as the syllabus, exams, lists of readings, etc. may be represented spatially as they are in their paper-based forms.

* Provide global views: Maps and global views provide a visual scope of the lay of the land and the relative positions of objects. Maps not only facilitate navigation, they are also helpful in learning relationships. A study on learning associations in hierarchical menu structures by Schwartz, Norman, & Shneiderman (1985) reported in Norman (1991, pp. 176-181) showed that while trial-and-error browsing was favorable at the beginning, subjects who studied a global map of the structure attained the highest memory and navigational performance.

Global views can be used not only to show the structure of the hypermedia database but also as a navigational aid in which the user can click on a location and then descend into the database at that point. Global views of subject matter have been generated in many different fields. For example, in a statistics text Harshbarger (1977) presents at the beginning of each chapter a flowchart that gives a global view of the material to be covered. History courses can effectively use a hypermedia representation of the time line and of course geography courses can use world maps themselves.

* Provide homing functions: One of the most important and overlooked functions in navigation is the homing function. Early menu selection systems often provided an option that would jump to the main menu. Research on hierarchical menu systems indicates a tendency for lost users to reorient themselves by jumping to the root node. Current stackware applications generally provide a jump to the "home" stack. Homing functions are frequently used when the user is lost or has come to a dead-end in a search. Another type of homing function moves step-by-step back to a beginning point. Hierarchical systems often provide this using a series of "escape," "level-up," or "previous" commands. In nonhierarchical systems a similar function can be achieved by recording a path history, placing book marks, or dropping bread crumbs.

In educational hypermedia, homing functions may be imposed by the instructor to bring everyone to the same point. For example, to start or stop an exercise at the same time, the instructor may home all of the students to one point in the hypermedia system. The most obvious application of a homing function in an electronic educational environment for a high school would be the home room, a central location in which one gains general guidance and from which one goes off to specific courses.

* Provide anchor points and landmarks: In the same vein as homing functions, a few well-defined hubs greatly aid in navigating through hypermedia databases. Many hypermedia stackware applications provide a "home" stack or "home" card for this purpose. These screens should provide a large number of options and should appear visually distinctive (e.g., Norman & Chin, 1988; Schwartz & Norman, 1986). Furthermore, it should be easy to jump to one or more of these anchor points from anywhere in the database.

In educational hypermedia there are a number of natural anchor points that come to mind: in addition to one's home room, we could add one's own desk or locker, the principal's office, and the library. In college courses, we could use the course syllabus, the class roll, and the table of contents of the textbook. Each of these could serve as anchor points in educational hypermedia.

* Make use of indexes: Early hypertext systems avoided the use of indexes because they seemed too structured and linear. However, they remain powerful tools for navigation. Imagine trying to use an atlas of the world without a gazetteer or trying to find the definition of a word in a hypermedia space rather than in a dictionary. Indexes provide broad, ordered menus of hypermedia nodes. They also serve as important anchor points and should be easily accessed at any point (e.g., Waterworth & Chignell, 1991).

In educational hypermedia indexes can be used for courses, lecture presentations, cross-referencing of terms, lists of readings, lists of students, and of course, the syllabus itself. Indexes are relatively easy to construct and easy to use.

* Good organization reduces navigational demands: If the information space is initially constructed according to meaningful units and relationships, the problems of navigation are reduced. Books are fairly easy to navigate because the pages are bound in a linear order rather than thrown in a box as loose sheets of paper. When driving a car, grids are easier to navigate than many circles with radiating spokes. In a similar way, the initial design of the information space helps considerably. Furthermore, the design of the space should match retrieval demands and cognitive tasks (e.g., Boehm-Davis et al., 1989).

Hypermedia databases should be organized with the educational task in mind. If hypermedia is retrofit, there may be an incompatibility between navigation and what the students are trying to accomplish. An obvious example, would be as follows: The instructor wants the students to browse through a database on American history to find something that strikes their interest. But if the database is organized linearly and all of the students start at the same point, it would not be surprising if most of the students stopped at the same point. On the other hand if the instructor wants to lead the students along a particular line of reasoning, the database should allow the instructor to move from point to point without having to go up and down some other predetermined hierarchy.

* Graceful transitions: Hypermedia involves transitions from one node to another and often from one media to another. In designing hypermedia systems, one needs to consider the effect of transitions from text to text, text to graphics, graphics to text, and graphics to graphics. One of the beauties of hypermedia is the possibility of a seamless transition between video and/or audio presentations in contrast to the lost time and attention taken to set up and start a film projector. However, with the new power of multimedia come new concerns about effective staging and choreography of materials to convey a lasting message without mesmerizing the student.

As one navigates multimedia transitions, the tools and techniques of navigation change. Navigation in the air is quite different from navigation on the ground. In the same way, navigation through a video documentary is different from navigating an encyclopedia and jumping from one to the other can be an added challenge.

* Provide feedback: Good navigation requires that the user always be informed of location and bearing. In hypermedia this means that students should have constant information as to where they are in the database and feedback as to where they are going when a selection is made. At the micro level this may be indicated by the highlighting of a button and at the macro level by the highlighting of a point on a global map. In complex systems one might need to know how far one has departed from a prescribed path or the level to which one has moved down a hierarchy.

In hypermedia systems for education additional feedback may be important. Students may need to know (a) if they are on the right track on a project, (b) if they are keeping up with or in-step with others in group collaboration, and (c) how their peers evaluate their navigation through the database.

5. 7 Conclusion

If the design and construction of an electronic classroom is an overwhelming task, the design and programming of the software environment is even more of a challenge. Nevertheless, if we rehost the educational process in the electronic environment by building on conventions developed over many generations rather than re-inventing education and building from scratch, the task is possible. Furthermore, there is the hope that both students and instructors will be able to transition into the new environment with greater ease.

The bottom line is that teaching in the electronic classroom should be easier and more engaging for the instructors than in the hardcopy classroom, and that learning should be easier and more engaging for the students than in the hardcopy classroom. In this chapter we reviewed a number of principles and guidelines to help design such a system. In the next chapter we will begin to describe a prototype system called "HyperCourseware" that attempts to apply these principles.

Exercises and Projects

1. Using the schematic in Figure 5.1, where would you place the following activities: (a) selecting the readings for a course, (b) taking notes in class, (c) sending an email message to the instructor, (d) going on a field trip, (e) looking up references for a paper, and (f) helping to write a class newspaper.

2. The scripts generated by students reported in this chapter were for a typical college class. Write similar scenarios for a third grade classroom and for a typical high school class.

3. Draw a map of your campus centered on your classes and other activities that could be used as a graphical user interface to select information for each of those classes and activities. Think about how it would displayed and used on a computer screen.

4. Select a hypermedia system and evaluated it in terms of the principles and guidlines presented in Section 5.6.

Suggested Readings

Norman, K. L. (1991). The psychology of menu selection: Cognitive control at the human/computer interface. Ablex.

Shneiderman, B. (1994). Designing the user interface: Strategies for effective human-computer interaction, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley.

Shneiderman, B., & Kearsley, G. Hands On Hypertext: An introduction to a new way of organizing and accessing information. Addison-Wesley.

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